…to Godparent or not to Godparent, that is the question?


…to Godparent or not to Godparent, that is the question?



When I hear anyone talking about who they might ask to be Godparents for their soon to be born child, the first picture that comes to mind is this: Two young women that have been friends all their lives and one asks the other, “Would you be my child’s Godmother?” Well, her friend’s jaw drops and then come the squeals and jumping up and down. The answer, “o my god, yes!” Now, these two young women are both Catholic, but their practice of the Faith is truly lacking. I ask myself, “With the horrific catechesis over the past 40 years or so, what are the chances of that child being raised in the true Catholic Faith?” I would guess, rather slim.

You see, it is very important to chose godparents that are going to take an active part in your child’s religious up-bringing. Too often, that task is left solely to the lay people that teach CCD, and I can assure you that not all CCD teachers are the best qualified instructors of the Faith. Nor is the material a parish provides for the child’s instruction necessarily sound. So leaving this task to your parish’s CCD programs is not the best option. That’s why it is so crucial to chose someone knowledgeable in the Apostolic Traditions of the Church. It is the duty of Catholic parents to educate their children and the catechesis of the children should be at the top of the list. (DIVINI ILLIUS MAGISTRI,ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XI ON CHRISTIAN EDUCATION) You need someone that can help you be sure that your child is getting the best religious education. You must also seek out someone who is willing to take on the task with fervor, especially if you become unable to fulfill the task yourself, or feel you are not educated well enough in the Church Apostolic Traditions to take this on alone.

The Church does have some guidelines to follow when choosing godparents, but first, I want to stress some other important things to take into consideration: (1) Catholic parents should arrange for the Baptism of their newborn as soon as possible. Do not delay! (2) The name you choose for your child should, ideally, be that of a Saint; at the least, he or she should not be given a name that conflicts with the Faith or recalls anything unsavory. For example, don’t chose a name like Sabrina that brings to mind witches. There is no saint named Sabrina. The name you choose for your new baby will be known as its “Christian” name. Also remember, that your child will receive yet another new name at Confirmation, it too, should be a “Christian” name.

Choosing Godparents

 The godparents act as witnesses and perform ritually that which the child would do if he or she could speak for themselves.

 Ideally, there should, be one male and one female for this task. Both baptized Catholics in good standing with the Church and who’ve reached the minimum age of sixteen. I would like to add here, that even though the age requirement is sixteens years, it would stand to reason that someone more mature and well versed in the Traditional teachings of the Church would be preferable. If two sponsors are unavailable, one will suffice, as long as this person meets all the requirements. Among those who may not act as godparents are: members of religious orders, spouses in respect to each other, parents in respect to their own children, infidels, heretics (Protestant cults) ,members of condemned secret societies, and public sinners (Note: the 1983 Code As to Christian heretics, it says that while Protestants may not act as godparents, they may act as “witnesses”). So, if one of the people you choose is non-Catholic, it’s fine as long as the other meets the requirements. As stated, the Protestant can only be a witness and not a godparent. In this case it is important that a Protestant witness is fully aware of this ,and that, they have no duty to help in the child’s religious education.

Duties of Godparents

In the case of children, the role of the godparent is to be that of “spiritual guardian” who takes up any “slack” in the child’s catechesis, helps ensure that his godchild learns the True Faith, and prays for the godchild throughout his life. St. Thomas Aquinas writes in his Summa Theologica III-67-8:

 “Now, it has been stated…that godparents take upon themselves the duties of a tutor. Consequently they are bound to watch over their godchildren when there is need for them to do so: for instance when and where children are brought up among unbelievers. But if they are brought up among [orthodox] Catholic Christians, the godparents may well be excused from this responsibility, since it may be presumed that the children will be carefully instructed by their parents. If, however, they perceive in any way that the contrary is the case, [heterodox Catholics, for example] they would be bound, as far as they are able, to see to the spiritual welfare of their godchildren.

 This is a very solemn obligation, not to be entered into lightly. Parents should choose their child’s godparents very carefully and select traditional Catholics who know the Faith, understand the obligations of god-parenting, and are willing and able to live up to those obligations. Parents and godparents should work together for the goal of helping the child to know, love, and serve God!

During the Rite of Baptism, the godparents will answer for the child, that is, they will make the replies to the questions asked by the priest of the one to be baptized. Being a godparent is not just a badge of honor, but a Catholic duty to be taken very seriously. Not only does a godparent hold in their hands the little body of their godchild, but also, their tiny little souls and answers for them before God that they will keep the promises that are made on that beautiful day when that little soul is set free from all stain of original sin and becomes a saint. It’s the duty of the parents and godparents that this is done throughout their lives to help them remain saints. Being a godparent doesn’t end after all the festivities are over, on the contrary, it begins in earnest.

May God bless you and may the Holy Ghost guide you on your journey together with your godchild.

Below are excerpts taken from Canon Law regarding Baptism that they may help you in your decision making process in choosing godparents, the place of baptism, the duties and requirements of the godparents/parents:


  • BOOK IV FUNCTION OF THE CHURCH (Cann. 834 – 848)



      • TITLE I. BAPTISM (Cann. 849 – 878)


Baptism (Cann. 850-874)



Can. 850 Baptism is administered according to the order prescribed in the approved liturgical books, except in case of urgent necessity when only those things required for the validity of the sacrament must be observed.

Can. 851 The celebration of baptism must be prepared properly; consequently:

 1/ an adult who intends to receive baptism is to be admitted to the catechumenate and is to be led insofar as possible through the various stages to sacramental initiation, according to the order of initiation adapted by the conference of bishops and the special norms issued by it;

 2/ the parents of an infant to be baptized and those who are to undertake the function of sponsor are to be instructed properly on the meaning of this sacrament and the obligations attached to it. The pastor personally or through others is to take care that the parents are properly instructed through both pastoral advice and common prayer, bringing several families together and, where possible, visiting them.

 Can. 852 §1. The prescripts of the canons on adult baptism are to be applied to all those who, no longer infants, have attained the use of reason.

§2. A person who is not responsible for oneself (non sui compos) is also regarded as an infant with respect to baptism.

Can. 853 Apart from a case of necessity, the water to be used in conferring baptism must be blessed according to the prescripts of the liturgical books.

Can. 854 Baptism is to be conferred either by immersion or by pouring; the prescripts of the conference of bishops are to be observed.

Can. 855 Parents, sponsors, and the pastor are to take care that a name foreign to Christian sensibility is not given.

Can. 856 Although baptism can be celebrated on any day, it is nevertheless recommended that it be celebrated ordinarily on Sunday or, if possible, at the Easter Vigil.

Can. 857 §1. Apart from a case of necessity, the proper place of baptism is a church or oratory.

§2. As a rule an adult is to be baptized in his or her parish church and an infant in the parish church of the parents unless a just cause suggests otherwise.

Can. 858 §1. Every parish church is to have a baptismal font, without prejudice to the cumulative right already acquired by other churches.

§2. After having heard the local pastor, the local ordinary can permit or order for the convenience of the faithful that there also be a baptismal font in another church or oratory within the boundaries of the parish.

Can. 859 If because of distance or other circumstances the one to be baptized cannot go or be brought to the parish church or to the other church or oratory mentioned in ? can. 858, §2 without grave inconvenience, baptism can and must be conferred in another nearer church or oratory, or even in another fitting place.

Can. 860 §1. Apart from a case of necessity, baptism is not to be conferred in private houses, unless the local ordinary has permitted it for a grave cause.

§2. Except in a case of necessity or for some other compelling pastoral reason, baptism is not to be celebrated in hospitals unless the diocesan bishop has established otherwise.



Can. 872 Insofar as possible, a person to be baptized is to be given a sponsor who assists an adult in Christian initiation or together with the parents presents an infant for baptism. A sponsor also helps the baptized person to lead a Christian life in keeping with baptism and to fulfill faithfully the obligations inherent in it.

Can. 873 There is to be only one male sponsor or one female sponsor or one of each.

Can. 874 §1. To be permitted to take on the function of sponsor a person must:

 1/ be designated by the one to be baptized, by the parents or the person who takes their place, or in their absence by the pastor or minister and have the aptitude and intention of fulfilling this function;

 2/ have completed the sixteenth year of age, unless the diocesan bishop has established another age, or the pastor or minister has granted an exception for a just cause;

 3/ be a Catholic who has been confirmed and has already received the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist and who leads a life of faith in keeping with the function to be taken on;

 4/ not be bound by any canonical penalty legitimately imposed or declared;

 5/ not be the father or mother of the one to be baptized.

 §2. A baptized person who belongs to a non-Catholic ecclesial community is not to participate except together with a Catholic sponsor and then only as a witness of the baptism.







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49 Responses to …to Godparent or not to Godparent, that is the question?

  1. admin says:

    Praised be Jesus Christ!

    Hello, Did you actually stand in as godmother during the baptism? Was the other woman’s name only used on the certificate? Was the officiating priest aware that you were only standing in as a proxy? Also, did the other woman meet all the necessary requirements to be a godparent? Sorry for all the questions, but I have to have some idea of what actually transpired. If the woman was not suitable to be a godparent, then go the the priest and explain the whole situation especially if it was you who actually was present at the baptism, I think the priest could make some changes and declare you the true godmother. But you must talk with priest and find out for sure what if anything can be done. What a shame to start ones spiritual life with a lie. I hope this has been helpful and that everything works out. I would be interested to know what happens.

    May God bless you.

  2. Irish Girl says:


    I have a question and concern regarding the actions of the mother of what I taught was My and my husband godchild ( his sister )

    in 1995 or 96 my then fiance asked me if I wanted to be his sisters godmother with him since his mother asked him to be the godfather

    I was thrilled with the Idea so I gave his mother what she needed and we did all that was requiered

    in recent years I found out that my name is not in any of the records and that the mother lied to put some elses name instead of mine she put her best friend that I feel that I was lied too and what is worst the whole baptisim was done with lies

    My now husband was very upset when we found out this lie if this was the real intension from the begining I would have said no since it violates one of the commandments

    What can I do I participated in something on which my name is not there

  3. admin says:

    Easter started with Mass at 7:30 am. The rest of the day was quiet and uneventful. There is no family close by. Thank you for the honer of having the First Day of Spring on my birthday. May the Risen Christ grant you His peace. JM+JT

  4. E James says:

    Easter Sunday is over and what a wonderful day spent with my Godchild. Hope you were able to spend time with family and friends. Only dtownside here was an overflow of people at Mass. About 200 of us got moved to another room with folding chairs, no books, no music, two Priests and one alterboy. I’m out of town visiting another city-they have at least 5 Priests there.
    I decided to get out a pen and change my calendar making April 6th the first day of spring and winter will be over. So after enjoying a beautiful first day of spring(hope you have a wonderful day also to start spring) I’ll move on to other springtime things and catching up on your articles.
    May our Lord bless you with a wonderful warm first day of Spring

  5. admin says:

    Thanks. I’m still working on getting the site working properly. A Blessed Easter to you also. JM+JT

  6. E James says:

    Very nice to be able to access your site again-I’ve missed ya. And the new appearance of your site is very nice.
    Just wanted to say I hope you have a very Holy and Spiritual Easter and may our Lord always watch over and protect you


  7. admin says:

    Wow! Good to hear from you. Spring and winter are battling it out. Hopefully, spring will finally win. As far as the Missal goes, I am only aware of two from that time -St. Joseph and the Marian Missal. I know there are others but I only had access to these two. What a wonderful Easter gift. The Mass in a Missal from 1950 and back should contain the Mass of Pius V. The one that should be said. Even this new version from the Missal of 1962 is not complete. There are some things missing, but it’s all we have right now unless there are some in moth balls somewhere. Have a very Happy and glorious Easter. May the Risen Christ dwell within your heart forever. JM+JT

  8. E James says:

    I hope all is excellent during this very special season. I see your two posted articles and interesting. Will comment sometime after Easter.
    Just a quick question and not sure if you have knowledge on this or not. I’m looking into a 1950 or earlier Sunday Latin-English Missal for my Godchild for Easter. I see different ones and wonder if you have knowledge of them and is there a preferred one over the others?
    Bless you and thank you for your time.

  9. E James says:

    Hmmm. You say sorry bout the cold weather you’re sending this way, but difficult to take you serious when you’re grinning like a Cheshire cat…Okay-grins and giggles time is over. You do have a cute grin and giggle, but the cold weather isn’t funny anymore. Last night showed it was 30 degrees or more warmer where you are than here. lol Arizona looks really nice right now.
    I’m very much looking forward to your article. You’re so very helpful and I hope you’re receiving at least a couple graces for all you do.

    May Our Lord watch over and bless you, keep you safe and help you with all your needs

  10. admin says:

    I hope to have an article on the subject of your curiosity very soon. 🙂

  11. admin says:

    I’m very happy to hear you finally made it. I’m also guessing it was a low Mass. That’s fine. It will take some getting use to.

    Sorry if you are getting some overflow of weather from us. It has been brutal these past two weeks. We are just about out of firewood already. Brrrr.

    Keep warm and may God bless you and reward you for taking the plunge. You received many wonderful graces that day.


  12. E James says:

    Despite the weather and road conditions made it down to the land of the Latin Mass. Very nice. Holy, solemn and beautifully respectful.
    Bless you for your encouragement.

  13. E James says:

    I offered you some the sunshine, but I didn’t mean take it all. lol
    I am curious on Communion. Did the Vatican II make the change in the way received or did the people just get it to where our Lord is accepted in the hand. Also the sloppy approach. Is that just the Priests not reminding people that Communion is very serious?

    May Our Lord watch over and protect you

  14. admin says:

    🙂 and you too.

  15. E James says:

    You definitely have helped and are helping this soul and it’s very much appreciated. I would have loved to have you for a R.C.I.A. instructor. After R.C.I.A. I felt a void. That something was missing. It kind of felt generic and not really spiritual. It was a blessing and eye opener finding your site.
    I grew up on the southwest area and was resistant to organized faith systems due to the heavy influence of the Christian Reformed in my area. Didn’t matter much what you did they told you that you were going to hell-whether having a beer or dancing or movies or whatever. But when I was in college back in the early seventies someone should have grabbed me by the ears and explained they are not all like that. At least I finally did start to explore-and again feeling that something was missing from my life.
    Now you agree to help me get back on track-big job-might wanna bring your lunch. lol 😀

    God bless you and hope you’re having a wonderful day

  16. admin says:

    YOU ARE VERY WELCOME. I’m happy to know that I have helped at least one soul on their journey. You are the only person that visits this site on a regular basis and leaves comments. So, thank you.

  17. E James says:

    Thank You, TY and Thanks…I was checking the Mass. Works great and is so awesome and to me how it should be. You are sooooo much help. 😀
    Now may I run a line hooking into your high speed so I can enjoy them at home? Gimme Gimme Gimme lol I will check with a friend and see if I can download and save. 😀

    And Wow! I’m not the only one who doesn’t do the wish list thing. Also Merry Christmas to you also, but I’ll be back here before Christmas.

    May God bless you- especially for all the help you give me

  18. admin says:

    How do the two Masses differ. Let me count the ways. First the high Mass is chanted from beginning to end. The low Mass is very somber and quiet. You might say it is an interior Mass because one lifts their heart and soul up to God. There is very little participation on the part of the congregation. The parts of the high Mass that you can participate in are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. The choir also sings these prayers, so this is the form you would use to say them – music. Remember the high Mass is chanted or sung from beginning to end. Refer to the PDF that you downloaded to be sure of the posture during the Masses.

    If you want to see a high and low Mass visit this site: Christ the King Catholic Church

    Click on LiveMass
    Then click on Florida, USA
    Scroll down to Sunday’s Mass and click
    They record all their Masses

    This will show the Mass from this last Sunday December 14,
    depending on when you read this. It was a high Mass.
    Otherwise, if you just watch the streaming video that is playing
    when you open the page, it will most likely be the Mass of the
    day. If it is a week day, it will be a low Mass. I thought I saw
    somewhere that they only celebrate high Mass every other week,
    but I could be wrong. The high Mass was always at 10:30 am on
    Sundays. You should be able to compare the difference.

    Hope this helps and is not confusing. Oh, and I don’t make wish-lists. 🙂

    Merry Christmas

  19. E James says:

    😛 (that’s me sticking out my tongue) I had to go download adobe reader to see the pdf file.
    The Missal isn’t in the best shape-some torn pages and binding coming loose, but can be read. I picked it up when first curious about how things were way back when and that it came out in 1948 was kind of nice being the year I was born(pssst no old guy jokes-ok-maybe a couple). Much interesting reading and soooo much different than in the Novus Ordo Mass.
    Any chance you would give me an idea how High Mass differs from Low Mass? And which one is normally used?
    May God smile upon you and keep you safe.


  20. admin says:

    WOW! A missal from 1948! Hang on to that treasure! That Missal should be just fine. That’s the beauty of the Latin Mass, it doesn’t change. That’s why we could go anywhere on the globe and attend a Mass and know what was going on from one minute to the next. Now, it’s a crap shoot and you don’t have any idea what kind of dog-and-pony show you’ll run in to at the Novus Ordo. Here is a link with a chart to show the Rubrichs for the congregation during both the High and Low Mass. Mass Rubrichs for the Faithful It’s a PDF, so you can keep it and refer to it whenever you want. Don’t be afraid of making a mistake. It even happens to seasoned Catholics. You won’t understand the Latin, but follow as closely as possible in the English translation with that beautiful Missal.

    May God bless you.

  21. E James says:

    Hmmmm “not a professional”…you’re quite knowledgeable, honest, very dedicated to our Faith, you walk our Faith, an open mind to seeking out further truth and appear pure of heart. You conduct yourself in a very professional way. I’ve been coming to your site for 8 years I think so I think I have a pretty reasonable opinion based on many dialogues.
    10-15 people?? I think I’ll skip visiting your Church-I’d stand out like a sore thumb lol. I only know of one around here and I’m hoping for around 100 there.
    How much is in Latin and are any responses in Latin? I do have a Missal from 1948, but I see at Fish Eaters that the 1962 version is used. Are there other differences in verbal exchange that is different from the Novus Ordo Mass? Do we greet the Priest upon entering or leaving Mass in a different way? Since you’ve attended both types of Mass I do hope you’ll be kind and let me know of any big difference where I would be embarrassed beyond a ‘little’ 😀
    Also if I take up too much of your time please say so. At no time do I wish to be an irritation to you. Also Tks bunches for taking a break on throwing snow down on us. I think November was a record here.

    May Our Lord watch over and comfort you.

  22. admin says:

    Just remember, “I am not a professional”, but will do my best to steer you in the right direction. Depending on the church you attend, whether the Latin Mass has been offered for a long time or relatively recent, will make a difference in the attendance. A long time established Latin Mass will most likely have more faithful in attendance. Our parish is new with the Latin Mass and we average around 12-15 people at any given Sunday or Tuesday. Today on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception there were many more, maybe closer to 25-30. I’m sure it was because the Mass was at noon and it was more convenient. Don’t be afraid to go. Sit towards the back and watch those ahead of you and you will soon know who knows what they are doing. They should have booklets to help you to follow along.

    Thanksgiving was a very quiet uneventful day. A lazy day.

    May God bless you and keep you from all harm.

  23. E James says:

    😀 Very happy to see your offer to help. I’ve been visiting your site for a ‘few’ years now. Thank you for your offer to help. I know I can trust you and your knowledge and you’ll continue to be very helpful on my journey to walk on a good path that is pleasing to our Lord.
    Hope you had a wonderful thanksgiving day and able to get together with family and friends. It was a fantastic day, but sadly now comes all the commercialism and the obsession for material objects with all the shopping. I am still shocked by the obsession on black Friday and to what extent people will go to get a deal on things. Quite sad to me to see all the lust for objects to the point of skipping time with family just to have those items..
    I am thinking about traveling to attend a Traditional Mass and wonder how attendance is different than the new Mass. I really don’t wish to have everyone looking at me. Would be nice to kinda look like I’m a Protestant who just wandered in off the street. lol
    Thanks very much and I pray that our Lord is watching over you.
    ej JM+JT

  24. admin says:

    If I can in some small way help you on your journey, I’d be more than happy. It helps keep me on my toes too. I tried to address each of your concerns as they were written.

    Sorry for sharing the snow, but it gets quite heavy here and we don’t want the world to flip backwards.

    Since the beginnings of Vatican II, there has been and influx and influence from the Protestants and Masons. The changes in the Holy Mass were to appease them. But it was taken farther than was originally thought and all the abuses since the beginning of the council. I might suggest that your visit the web site Defeat Modernism. There are several videos to watch that explains all about the Second Vatican Council and the Novus Ordo. Play particular attention to videos and radio broadcasts by Fr. Gregory Hesse. In one of the videos he is asked what his credentials are that make him a credible source of information in regard to the questions presented to him. Well, just watch and listen closely.

    Scripture says there is no divorce and the Church always upheld that position. The reasons for dissolving a marriage had to be pretty horrendous before one was given. The proof of the charges had to be very strong as well. Even the words of the marriage ceremony state, “let no man put usunder what God has joined together.” This alone makes it indissoluble.

    The Catholic Church has become the “Church of nice”. The Church has become as Christ during His Passion as One no longer resembling a human because of the tortures. Holy Mother Church has been stripped of Her Royal Robes, made to speak in a language foreign to Her and no longer permitted to speak with Her own Divine Authority. There is no such thing as a The Modern Mass. There is only one true Mass. The Eternal Mass which was canonized (codified) by St. Pope Pius V. After the Council of Trent, St. Pius V wrote in his Bull the following:

    “Now therefore, in order that all everywhere may adopt and observe what has been delivered to them by the Holy Roman Church, Mother and Mistress of the other churches, it shall be unlawful henceforth and forever throughout the Christian world to sing or to read Masses according to any formula other than that of this Missal published by Us; this ordinance to apply to all churches and chapels, with or without care of souls, patriarchal, collegiate and parochial, be they secular or belonging to any religious Order whether of men (including the military Orders) or of women, in which conventual Masses are or ought to be sung aloud in choir or read privately according to the rites and customs of the Roman Church; to apply moreover even if the said churches have been in any way exempted, whether by indult of the Apostolic See, by custom, by privilege, or even by oath or Apostolic confirmation, or have their rights and faculties guaranteed to them in any other way whatsoever; saving only those in which the practice of saying Mass differently was granted over two hundred years ago simultaneously with the Apostolic See’s institution and confirmation of the church, and those in which there has prevailed a similar custom followed continuously for a period of not less than two hundred years; in which cases We in no wise rescind their prerogatives or customs aforesaid. Nevertheless, if this Missal which We have seen fit to publish be more agreeable to these last, We hereby permit them to celebrate Mass according to this rite, subject to the consent of their bishop or prelate, and of their whole Chapter, all else to the contrary notwithstanding. All other churches aforesaid are hereby denied the use of other missals, which are to be wholly and entirely rejected; and by this present Constitution, which shall have the force of law in perpetuity, We order and enjoin under pain of Our displeasure that nothing be added to Our newly published Missal, nothing omitted therefrom, and nothing whatsoever altered there in.

    We specifically command each and every patriarch, administrator and all other persons of whatsoever ecclesiastical dignity, be they even Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, or, possessed of any other rank or pre-eminence, and We order them by virtue of holy obedience to sing or to read the Mass according to the rite and manner and norm herein laid down by Us, and henceforward to discontinue and utterly discard all other rubrics and rites of other missals, howsoever ancient, which they have been accustomed to follow, and not to presume in celebrating Mass to introduce any ceremonies or recite any prayers other than those contained in this Missal.

    Furthermore, by these presents and by virtue of Our Apostolic authority, We give and grant in perpetuity that for the singing or reading of Mass in any church whatsoever this Missal may be followed absolutely, without any scruple of conscience or fear of incurring any penalty, judgment or censure, and may be freely and lawfully used. Nor shall bishops, administrators, canons, chaplains and other secular priests, or religious of whatsoever Order or by whatsoever title designated, be obliged to celebrate Mass otherwise than enjoined by Us. We likewise order and declare that no one whosoever shall be forced or coerced into altering this Missal; and this present Constitution can never be revoked or modified, but shall forever remain valid and have the force of law, notwithstanding previous constitutions or edicts of provincial or synodal councils, and notwithstanding the usage of the churches aforesaid established by very long and even immemorial prescription, saving only usage of more than two hundred years.

    Consequently it is Our will, and by the same authority We decree, that one month after publication of this Our Constitution and Missal, priests of the Roman Curia shall be obliged to sing or to read the Mass in accordance therewith; others south of the Alps, after three months; those who live beyond the Alps, after six months or as soon as the Missal becomes available for purchase.

    Furthermore, in order that the said Missal may be preserved incorrupt and kept free from defects and errors, the penalty for nonobservance in the case of all printers resident in territory directly or indirectly subject to Ourselves and the Holy Roman Church shall be forfeiture of their books and a fine of 100 gold ducats payable ipso facto to the Apostolic Treasury. In the case of those resident in other parts of the world it shall be excommunication latae sententiae and all other penalties at Our discretion; and by Our Apostolic authority and the tenor of these presents. We also decree that they must not dare or presume either to print or to publish or to sell, or in any way to take delivery of such books without Our approval and consent, or without express permission of the Apostolic Commissary in the said parts appointed by us for that purpose. Each of the said printers must receive from the aforementioned Commissary a standard Missal to serve as an exemplar for subsequent copies, which, when made, must be compared with the exemplar and agree faithfully therewith, varying in no wise from the first impression printed in Rome.

    But, since it would be difficult for this present Constitution to be transmitted to all parts of the world and to come to the notice of all concerned simultaneously, We direct that it be, as usual, posted and published at the doors of the Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles, at those of the Apostolic Chancery, and at the end of the Campo de’Fiori; moreover We direct that printed copies of the same, signed by a notary public and authenticated with the seal of an ecclesiastical dignitary, shall possess the same unqualified and indubitable validity everywhere and in every country that would attend the display there of Our present text. Accordingly, no one whosoever is permitted to infringe or rashly contravene this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, direction, grant, indult, declaration, will, decree and prohibition. Should any person venture to do so, let him understand that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul.”

    That sounds pretty definite to me as to what constitutes the Mass of the Catholic Church.

    Satan was released at Vatican II and that is the WHY there is such turmoil in the Church even to the very top of the hierarchy. We must remain faithful to the truth as handed down from Christ through the Apostles, that Deposit of Faith. Our Lady said to pray the Rosary every day and we must be faithful to that command of the Queen of Heaven. We must pray that the chain of disobedience is broken and that the consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart is completed, soon.

    That’s all for today. May God bless and keep you well. JM+JT

  25. E James says:

    How very thoughtful of you. Thank you very much. Yes I not only desire to understand being truly Catholic, but to be truly Catholic. I believe you are truly Catholic-not only in talk, but in walk and hope I can continue to learn from you and hope you don’t mind having a student. 😀
    Also would you be kind and keep your snow up there? I’m getting quite tired of the cold and constant snow. Tks in advance. lol
    Marriage is just a serious example, but I wonder just how much the non Catholic part of society is forming our Catholic Faith. In the fifties a civil divorce was very difficult to get. Had to be absolute proof the the bonds of marriage had been destroyed and no hope to establish them again. During the same time a annulment was extremely difficult to get. The elements of a valid marriage are quite simple and clear for it to be valid on the day of marriage. Even very young people found out their marriage was valid and you’re not getting an annulment(you may separate but still married).
    Moving on to 1962-1965 and change. By 1970 the civil courts had no fault divorce. Someone could go into a period of feeling things wouldn’t work and no real questions asked by the court-a divorce was just given. And in our Catholic faith suddenly a annulment was asked for and just given. I wonder how many annulments have been given on valid marriages. Also how did it go from being so difficult to get to so easy to get? Were they wrong in the fifties or are they wrong today? Curiosity question: what happens when an annulment is given on a valid marriage? If man can’t break a valid marriage then it would seem an annulment wouldn’t be able to either. Is there an infallibility thing on annulments saying if they are issued that they are absolutely correct?
    All this while society has went in a direction destructive to the family unit. In the seventies the therapists started telling people they must love and please themselves first. From there it went onto the “feel good” era where everyone had to “feel good” all the time. Next came the “entitled” era where people feel they are entitled to every thing. I think I see that reflection in the ‘modern’ Mass. Mass is almost treated like a convenience store stop in. I guess how do we get the people to stop bringing in these new “enlightened” ideas? To stop adapting our Faith to society.
    I was pleasantly surprised going to Fish Eaters. A very nice site and thank you for posting it. I did check your other two links also. After going to Fish Eaters a few times I did join it. 😀
    Again Yes I do desire to continue learning. I hope I’m not too much of a burden or irritation and that you are willing to continue to teach me.

    May our Lord continue to watch over and comfort you.
    ej JM+JT

  26. admin says:

    I am putting a link here for a Catechism that is most excellent and should be used once again. But, I’m sure it won’t be any time soon. If you truly want to know and understand what it means to be Catholic. Click here. It is a PDF.

  27. admin says:

    I’m sitting down far too much 🙂 Yes, I was sitting when I read your comment. I haven’t written my response because I wasn’t quite sure on what angle I was going to take, and then, it dawned on me . . .no angle, straight forward. So here goes– yes since Vatican II the Church has been experiencing a diabolical disorientation. Key word there ‘DIABOLICAL’. The evil one is having a hay-day with this and we must not get caught up in the twister.

    Yes, we make choices and thus have to live with them. Unfortunately some of these choices come with tremendous consequences, the worst of which is Hell.

    I agree that there are far too many annulments given, especially since the Catholic Church doesn’t believe in divorce. So if a case comes before the Tribunal it reasons for asking for an annulment better be water tight and valid. I’m not going to make a list of all the possible reasons for an annulment because I don’t know all the ins-and-outs as to what is considered valid. I do believe that a couple should have more than a few weeks or months of instruction and surely more than one interview, the couple together and separately. The priest should be given time to weed out any lies or discrepancies that would lead him to believe the marriage would not work. We always try to put our best foot forward in an interview and probably bend the truth here and there to make ourselves look good. The couple may look all lovey-dovey in front of the priest, but let their true colors fly when they are not.

    As far as the Church becoming a “feel good” church. Well, that’s all part of the diabolical disorientation. The corruption is at the top and trickling down . . the corruption of the Mass, children poorly catechized, annulments galore, gay priests, women that want to be priests. It just goes on and on. We must be strong in our Faith and look to the Fathers, the Apostles, that Apostolic Faith handed down (Depost of Faith). So much coming out of Rome these days is absolutely WRONG. It’s not Catholic. This Synid this week is a sham and I don’t see any good coming from it, only more confusion. Read what Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine have to say before believing anything out of Rome now. Cardinal Burke and some others have raised their voice in defense of true Catholic teaching calling what is being said at the Synid garbage.

    You have seen the lack of proper dress at Mass, no genuflection, no reverence, communion in the hand. These are all abuses and irreverence allowed by the bishops. Shameful, nothing but shameful. Catholics have no idea what a grace it is to be Catholic, because they don’t know what it is to be Catholic anymore. How can anyone know when there is no one to teach the truth? In some cases, if there is someone to teach the truth, they are told to keep quiet or reprimanded for be destroyers and deceivers. When in fact they are the destroyers.

    When Catholics decide not to attend Mass or the Sacraments, basically turning away from God, they condemn themselves. We can invite them to come back and hope for a conversion. But a conversion to what, the Novus Ordo circus or the true Catholic Church. We must in charity invite them to the true Church. If they refuse, well, like I said, they condemn themselves.

    Read Paul’s Letter to the Romans. He spells out a lot of things that are prevalent in the world today. Not that anything is new under the sun. I was going to suggest certain verses, but the letter is, well right on. Read from a Douay Rheims not from the New American Bible or any of the other ‘modern’ interpretations.

    Also read up on Fatima and what Our Lady said. I think we are living the Third Secret. Hang on to your hat because the ride is going to get rough. Be ready!! Pray like you’ve never prayed before and keep your Rosary close by and use it often. God have mercy on us for we are sinners!
    Some good web sites for the truth about the Church is Church Militant.tv and Fisheaters.

    I hope this helps you understand what is going on and how important it is to stay informed. It wouldn’t hurt to read about the ‘Three Days of Darkness’ too.

    May God bless and keep you safe from all harm. JM+JT

  28. E James says:

    So nice that you got to have a wonderful week. Much better than on a computer. 😀
    Ok is ya sitting down? I’m going to change my position. Not that the former position doesn’t hold some validity, but I’ve given much thought to the overall picture and how so much is getting ‘watered down’ to cater to possible re-connecting to the Catholic Faith. Your position on they should be required to attend Mass for at least six months is a better position.
    We make our choices and are accountable for them. Since Vatican II so much has been watered down to a feel good position. Is the Catholic Faith going to become just another feel good church? It’s not just the leniency of non practicing Catholics using the Catholic Church for marriage, but continues into other areas. If the marriage doesn’t work they hand them an annulment(do they ever rule that one is valid?). If the marriage is in a faith believing in the Holy Trinity, recognized by the Catholic Church, with permission and ends in divorce the annulment will be fast tracked and be given in probably six months or less. The link you gave me supports a marriage must only be valid at the moment on the day of the marriage. Difficult to believe that all of them lack validity unless you use the new thinking of “they didn’t fully understand what a marriage is” (does anyone before getting married). They want to get the non practicing Catholics back so bad they have it so watered down that it doesn’t mean much anymore. And what of those getting remarried when in reality the first marriage is valid?
    And the Baptizing of children where the parent or parents don’t practice. Once again let’s make them happy and feel good in case they might return.
    Funeral Mass for someone who hasn’t practiced their whole life. What is the purpose outside of make some feel good.
    And during Mass. Looking at the way people dress or lack of dress. Conduct during Mass where some won’t kneel or stand. Hard to believe there are that many people with so many medical problems. Also the coming in just before Communion and leaving right after. Nothing is said because let’s not offend them and have them feel bad.
    The one Homily was right. The windows have been opened and the evil is flooding in. It seems things went from “Gimme Gimme Gimme never gets” to “Gimme Gimme Gimme always gets”. We need to stop telling people how wonderful they did when they say 2 plus 2 is 3. They need to hear they are wrong.
    So now my position is your position. If they can’t attend Mass then go to some drive in church, can even sit in their car and leave anytime they want. Our Catholic Church isn’t for those people until they get an awakening, are willing to be serious and submit to the Catholic Faith and Our Lord.
    May Our Lord keep you safe and keep you strong in working to get the Catholic Church back where it belongs. JM+JT

  29. admin says:

    Sorry for taking so long to respond, but we had seven grandchildren visiting. We are just now getting back to some sense of “normal”. We had a few days between each visit.

    The Church has always frowned on mixed marriages because of the possible dangers to the Catholic spouse. He or she is subject to losing their faith. But you also bring up a good point that just maybe there would be a “good” that would come from the union . . . a conversion. Yes, we can always hope for this and pray for it. Encouragement from devout Catholic family and friends would help a lot too. Sometimes a good example is all that is needed to help someone see how good it is to be Catholic.

  30. E James says:

    Sorry but being older than you I get to skip the wood thing lol. I also don’t live in the northern tundra so won’t use the furnace for some time yet. 😀
    WOW!!! Admirable position on getting married in the Catholic Church. I know of only one couple that went that route(not sure on the celibacy part though) They dated and attended Mass for close to two years before getting married and are still together many years later. I also know of another couple where I knew her very well. Went on a date and he stayed that night and each night after. They married in the Catholic Church and are still married many years later. Doubt they met the celibacy part and not practicing the Catholic Faith. I was very concerned for her because it just didn’t seem like her, but I would never say she was or is a hypocrite. Very moral and a heart of gold.
    I very much feel the path you have outlined is the best route to take and probably the most fulfilling. As I posted that sometimes some other route does get them there. Maybe getting married in the Catholic Church helped plant a seed that took hold because she did go back to practicing the Catholic Faith on a very regular basis. 😀
    So my opinion is encourage for your path, but don’t deny non practicing couples from getting married in the Catholic Church and hope for a positive result


  31. admin says:

    Please no reminders that summer is almost done. We’ve built a fire a few times this summer and trying to get wood in for the cold winter. Brrrr

    Now this is just my thinking about non-practicing Catholics being able to marry in the Church. WELL, AS LONG AS THEY CAN PROVE THAT THEY CAN BE PRACTICING BY ATTENDING MASS AND THE SACRAMENTS for a period of no less than six moths and up to a year before the marriage. They must also prove that they are not living together and remaining celibate. If those wanting to marry in the Church must hold fast the teachings of the Church or else they are hypocrites and liars to begin a new life together. Often times these marriages don’t work and I think it was more for the pomp and circumstance, fulfilling a girlish dream. The Church gives and receives to those who are willing to give of themselves. I hope you and others will understand what I am trying to say. The Church will not be used or made a fool. The situation you mentioned that I told you about is a perfect example of how people expect something for nothing. If a person stays away from the Church for 30-40 years, kills their spouse and then commits suicide. Please do the math, the Church, in my opinion, owes them nothing for nothing. Guess, I’m just not very charitable in those situations. As I said, these are just my thoughts.

  32. E James says:

    August 14th and what a wonderful gorgeous day and hope yours’ was also. And a reminder that soon summer will come to a close. I think the end of summer is coming too fast.
    You made reference to non practicing Catholics and Godparents. The recent Grand Rapids Faith magazine had an article on non practicing Catholics getting married in the Catholic Church. I’m curious on your views as to non practicing Catholics as far as marriage, baptisms and funeral Mass. I do recall you made mention of a funeral Mass, but that was referring to very unusual circumstances.
    Thank you for your time. May Our Lord continue to watch over you

  33. E James says:

    A very intriguing and knowledgeable post. I imagine there aren’t very many who haven’t missed a “few” Masses, but your Faith is strong and you walk on a very good path. I can say confidently that you have always been of strong Faith and have doubtfully ever strayed far from that good path. How many people you have influenced in a good way you will probably never know. I think it’s human nature that when someone impacts us in the right way ( evangelize ) we don’t tend to ever let them know and thank them for all they have done. Some day I should take time and say “I want to thank you for helping to guide me to our Catholic Faith. Just by how you act and live was an influence”. Maybe one of these days. (and a little humor=I did check the candidate list for Angels= you’re on it and I’m not)
    Your partial sentence “but it is a matter of whether or not the sins one commits buries them or makes them see the damage to the soul and the grief they have caused such a loving merciful God. ” really hit home and yes our Catholic Faith has made me face that. If anyone joins the Catholic Faith and thinks it’s all going to be joy and smiles they are mistaken. They will end up facing themselves and what they have done or failed to do.
    Yes I do pray to our Most Sorrowful Mother daily. And I also appreciate the help you give me.
    May Our Lord watch over and comfort you and help with your needs.

  34. admin says:

    At least you have seen a light and seeking the Truth. I’m no angel and have missed my share of Masses throughout my life, but it is a matter of whether or not the sins one commits buries them or makes them see the damage to the soul and the grief they have caused such a loving merciful God. A God, who gave His all for them. Just because someone is a cradle-Catholic doesn’t mean they haven’t broken all of the God’s laws in one way or another. The road to true eternal happiness is not easy but it’s do-able. Keep searching and stay close to Jesus through Mary. She is the key and very willing to help. May God grant you the grace to persevere to the end.

  35. E James says:

    Actually I did look at the primary(most used) and the other definitions. I guess something was lost in reading my post. The definition was only used in understanding why my perspective was as it was.
    (Assumptions from prior conversations) You were born into a Catholic family…raised Catholic..went to a Catholic school…and quite possibly you have missed very few Masses in your life. You see from the Catholic perspective.
    I was born into a Protestant family….attending church very very little…most perspectives are from a general society view. My only contact really is from getting married to a Catholic girl in a Protestant church(yes permission was given)…neither was attending any type of church. And I admit that was a mistake in life, but can’t go back and change it. So generally my perspectives on things won’t be from a Catholic view. That’s a benefit to your site. I get to learn as my previous post stated.
    May our Lord watch over you and help you with your needs

  36. admin says:

    Actually, if you look at the full definition from the dictionary that you gave: a solemn promise or assertion; specifically : one by which a person is bound to an act, service, or condition ”. Couples that take vows or those nuns and religious men who also take vows are bound by these vows to live and act in a certain way. Married couples are expected to be faithful to one another and care for each other until death do they part, period. Religious have a Rule and Constitutions that they are bound to live by till death. period. God parents are bound but not by such a strict stated rule. It is purely their word to agree to help this child or even adult to become as holy as possible. As I said before, at baptism the individual is given a pure white soul and it the duty of the parents, godparents or the individual themselves to keep that purity of soul all their life. So being a godparent is a very serious and heavy responsibility that is taken much too lightly. I think this is a point that should be made perfectly clear to parents and prospective godparents right from the get-go. Parents and godparents that don’t live holy lives cannot teach others to live in that accord.

  37. E James says:

    Quite enlightening and helpful. Also shows how growing up in different geographic areas has an impact. Also the fact you grew up within the Catholic church and I went to public schools and very little organized faith influence. I have used more the common non-religious usage such as Merriam-Webster “vow
    noun \ˈvau̇\

    : a serious promise to do something or to behave in a certain way
    Full Definition of VOW
    : a solemn promise or assertion; specifically : one by which a person is bound to an act, service, or condition ”
    I can clearly see where I’ve had this elevated to where it shouldn’t have been. Possibly this is why I see other Godparents conducting themselves quite different than I do. It’s very nice to see the perspective of within the Catholic church and the opportunity to learn and grow.
    Again I thank you for your informative post and your time in explaining it. I will work on adjusting my application of my position of being a Godparent. Your information will certainly make my responsibility easier

  38. admin says:

    When someone speaks of a “vow”, I think immediately to those taken in marriage and those of Religion. These vows are public and solemn taken for life. A godparent agrees to stand in the place of the infant and answers for that child. Godparents say to God and those who are there to witness that they (the infant) will keep the promises made that day. These are very serious promises. It is faith in a nutshell you might say. Since the infant has no idea what is happening, it is the responsibility of the parents and godparents to help the child grow in faith and not to tarnish that lily white soul they acquired at baptism. Look at it this way–for centuries men have staked their lives and fortunes on nothing but their word. To give ones word was and still is a very serious thing. Any man that did not keep his word was no longer looked upon as anyone trust worthy and probably a liar. Godparents speak for the child–giving the child’s word, so they should take very seriously the duty of helping the child keep their word, by keeping the baptismal promises. I hope this clears the whole idea of a vow and promise. Yes, these promises taken at baptism are life long too, but they are not solemn vows.

  39. E James says:

    Hmmmmm…. you say it’s not a vow, but is a serious promise. May I ask your definition of a vow? It’s always been my understanding that a vow is a most serious promise. You even got me to go to Webster where it shows as being a “solemn promise”. I have the feeling we have slightly different perspectives due to having grown up in different geographic areas that may have helped create slightly different usages

  40. admin says:

    Yes, I must agree that there should be a “training” period for parents and godparents. The priests should also do a background check on the prospective godparents. He should also be aware of whether the parents are practicing Catholics themselves. Now, I would like to comment on the fact that being a godparent in no way is to be thought of as taking a “vow”. It is a very serious promise-commitment, due to the fact, that a person’s soul development is at stake. All the changes that have taken place over the last forty years or so has caused a lot of confusion and people just seem to follow along with all that is wrong like sheep. If the one leading is wrong, then so will all those that follow and this is dangerous. Our priests and bishops need so many prayers for their own conversions back to the traditions of the Holy Roman Catholic Church that Christ established, not what man has tried to build out of his pride and ignorance. Keep on taking care of your godchild and he will be ever so grateful. That means you have to keep learning too. 🙂

  41. E James says:

    Thank you 🙂
    Yes there are so many things to consider and as you stated this is so very serious. How to get across to people it is so much more than a title or badge of honor. Similar to a marriage where there is a vow to someone and to our Lord. To fail to live up to a vow made to the child and to our Lord is not something anyone should ever take a chance on having to live with. How do we attend Mass knowing a vow/promise was made to our Lord and we failed to keep that vow and as a result harmed one of our Lord’ children? Once time has gone by there isn’t any way to make amends for it and all you can do is suffer for your choice. I will say that if the parents of the Godchild where contact isn’t really possible that it would not fall back on the Godparent as failing to keep the vow.
    I do totally agree with your article and that is what should be sought after in choosing Godparents for the child. I’ve also thought that possible the Catholic Church could have classes for prospective Godparents. Even once a week for five weeks could give much information on that it is a vow and the responsibilities and expectations. Also that they will probably receive unbelievable joy and love. My Godchild is one of the four people in my life who are truly blessings from our Lord.
    I am sympathetic to the parents though. I look back to the seventies(for my age that would be the decade for children). As for relatives, friends and spouses I would have nine prospective Godparents. Three Catholic(non practicing) and six Protestants(with two practicing). Jumping forward to the nineties I’m down to five. One Catholic(non practicing) and four Protestants(two practicing…and one kinda lol). So the number kinda got cut in half. Without answering do you still have half of the possibles from what you had in the seventies? I’m guessing most will probably have around half left twenty years after the child is born.
    I don’t have the answers for improving the situation on Godparents, but I do know that being a Godparent is extremely serious and as serious as marriage vows. Much prayer should be given in deciding on who should be asked and the person asked should give much prayer in deciding to accept or decline.
    And I still say that if you’re not a Godmother that you would have been an extremely excellent one and someone make a mistake in not asking you.(again no answer needed) Also I haven’t given up on a picture of the Chapel…All I’m finding is yearbook pics and not very good pictures, but you are right that they changed it. 🙁

  42. admin says:

    You have made an excellent point about finding Godparents that are going to actually be a part of the child’s life. As I stated, being a Godparent is not just a badge of honor that is allowed to tarnish over the years. Being a Godparent is, especially in some cases, a life long endevour. If the natural parents are not capable of instructing the child properly, then they must step in and take charge. No one can count on most of the CCD classes to even come close to fulfilling this task with the proper teaching.
    “Ya can’t teach what ya don’t know.” Parishes have a difficult time getting CCD teachers and if someone says, “I’ll do it.” Wellll, they give them a book and assign a class and there they go; believing they are doing something real good. Maybe for themselves, but not for the kids.

    Anyway, good point. I apologize to anyone who might be a CCD teacher and you feel insulted, but really think about what you truly know about the Church and where did you learn it. For those that do teach CCD and have a good sound knowledge of what the Church truly teaches (traditional Catholic teaching), good for you and keep on teaching. We need you.

  43. E James says:

    A very excellent and informative article on both the traditional Catholic position and the information for consideration in the selection of Godparents. A responsibility which today is far more difficult than it was prior to 1970. A changing Catholic Faith and today’s society has made it a task of much sole searching in who you choose.

    A much more mobile society due to more people being able to attend college and relocating due to career choices and meeting their spouses while in college. Adding to this difficulty is the position of Our Faith and the civil courts on divorce. A divorce is given upon request and an annulment(declaration on validity=declaration on not being valid) is also given upon request. Between the two increases the likelihood of people moving out of the area and therefore out of the child’s life. Add to this the decline of Catholics that are attending the Catholic Church and it gets very difficult.

    Basically their are four groups of people that Godparents will be selected from: there are friends, spouses of friends, relatives and spouses of relatives. With all the changes in our society how many spouses of friends will be around to be involved in the child’s life? Approximately half will get divorced and be out of the picture. On friends, how many will go in other directions? Do you still have high school/college friends active in your life? I have one that remained involved. How can anyone meet their responsibilities if the child or Godparent moves 500 miles away?

    Spouses of relatives have a similar situation as spouses of friends. Here again approximately half will leave the picture due to divorce. How many invite their ex to family get togethers? I would think on face value relatives would have the highest chances of remaining involved in the child’s life. With their spouses having the next best chance.

    As for knowledgeable on the Catholic Faith. Even amongst those who attend regular I don’t see where many are knowledgeable. It may be very difficult to find anyone that is actually qualified. My opinion is that parents have to think long and hard on who they know, who has the personality that they will stay in the child’s life and who approaches this responsibility with a desire to live up to that responsibility. Also someone who will be very serious about any vow/commitment made to Our Lord and the child.

    I can see why it’s been opened up to protestants, due to the fact, they may be the best choice the parents know when considering all aspects. Protestants are capable of learning Our Catholic Faith and may even come to love it. Without choosing someone who is very serious about the commitment and one who is willing to apply themself to the Vow and responsibility probably all the others things won’t matter.

  44. admin says:

    Thank you for he Mother’s Day wishes. Like I said before, take your time and pray about your response. I’m in no big hurry.

  45. E James says:

    Just need to address it without personal situation impacting the response. But not the day for that because this is Your day.
    Happy Mother’s Day. 😀 Praying that it is a truly wonderful day with beautiful flowers, a nice dinner and lovely contact with your children.
    Here’s a virtual bouquet of Trilliums (they are blossoming now, but against the law to pick em so has to be virtual lol) that hopefully will add to your day being really nice 🙂

  46. admin says:

    Take your time. Pray about it and I’ll pray for you. 🙂

  47. E James says:

    You’re kinda right, but not a little. It’s a lot longer. Many thoughts on it since it has impact on my personal life of which it has created a fork in the road. When I can decide on a response that is balanced in fairness to you and my personal life I’ll do it. 🙂

  48. admin says:

    I thought your comment would be a liiiitle longer. 🙂

  49. E James says:


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